Formation of Cliff and wave cut platform@

Due to wave refraction, wave energy concentrates at headland. Destructive wave open up lines of weakness, e.g. joints and fault lines, and sea caves and geo are formed. When the roofs of sea caves collapse and several sea cave and geo joint up, a vertical wall of rock is formed as cliff.

Repeated process of sea cave and geo formation will make the cliff retreat.  When the cliff extends backward, a flat wave cut platform will be formed in front of the cliff.

Wave cut platform can usually be seen when it is at low tide. However, the wave cut platform at Ping Chau shown in the photo is higher than sea level because of submergence (uplifting).